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中枢神经系统淋巴组织的结构和功能特点

中枢神经系统的特点之一是缺乏一个经典的淋巴引流系统。虽然现在已公认中枢神经系统在脑膜隔室内受到持续的免疫监视,但控制免疫细胞从中枢神经系统进入和退出的机制仍不清楚。在寻找进入和离开脑膜的T细胞通路的过程中,我们发现了位于硬脑膜窦内的功能性淋巴管。这些结构表达淋巴管内皮细胞的所有分子标志,能够从CSF携带液体和免疫细胞,并且连接到颈深淋巴结。迄今为止,这些血管的独特位置可能阻碍了它们的发现,从而促成了中枢神经系统中缺乏淋巴血管的长期观念。中枢神经系统淋巴系统的发现可能需要重新评估神经免疫学的基本假设,并为与免疫系统功能障碍相关的神经炎和神经退行性疾病的病因学提供新的线索。

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Louveau A, Smirnov I, Keyes TJ,et al .

Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatics.

Nature. 2015; 523(7560): 337–341.

One of the characteristics of the CNS is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the CNS undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the CNS remain poorly understood. In searching for T cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the CSF, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the CNS. The discovery of the CNS lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and shed new light on the etiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.


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